Schematic Representation of 'Sustainable Development'
Climate Change is a global fact. There is a need to agree on a framework of action during Rio+20 and have, among others, a timeline for implementing sustainable development commitments with a set of actionable goals. The poor and mountainous countries contribute least to global warming but are the most vulnerable to climate change and erratic weather patterns. But, their capacity to address the problems is limited. Therefore, the global community needs to develop mechanisms to support the most vulnerable countries in effectively addressing the adverse impacts of climate change and for using the opportunities resulting from it to improve livelihood and achieve climate-resilient development. The ability of vulnerable countries to address different global crises is limited and therefore the need for a mechanism to help such countries to overcomes crises, and improve resilience. 
Nepal believes this can be achieved through proper and effective integration of Istanbul Program of action for the LDCs in the global sustainable development agenda. While using natural resources (hydropower generation and biodiversity conservation) for economic gains, care must be taken to ensure fair and equitable benefit sharing with local communities and indigenous people, whose life and livelihood directly or indirectly depend on the resources or the ecosystem services. Both income inequality and poverty reduction need to be addressed sustainably taking into account the need to democratize ownership, control and decision making over productive natural resources and assets. 
There has to be an appropriate mix of the democratic and inclusive models such as cooperatives, collective and community- based and driven ventures, and public-private enterprises for ensuring that the economic activities contribute to the developmental goals of the community and society. LDCs such as Nepal need support for the strengthening innovation capacity to generate appropriate technologies, enhance extension services and improve market infrastructures for increasing the productivity of agriculture and natural resources. It is also necessary to develop easily adoptable and resilient technologies that meet the needs of the poor, women and excluded groups and communities. Both farm and non- farm linkages need to be strengthened by improving connectivity, creating post- harvest infrastructures and facilities, promoting value adding small and micro enterprises (SMEs) and increasing marketing and distribution efficiency.
Despite constraints, Nepal has made considerable progress in implementing programs related to the natural resources management, renewable energy, health and education and poverty reduction. It can be better given its comparative advantages and natural resources endowment for the developing sustainable agriculture, ecotourism, water resources, renewable energy, non- timber forest products, community forestry and biodiversity conservation. However, it needs additional support (finance, technology transfer and capacity development) for the sustaining the achievements and scaling up the successful pilot interventions.