Coordination, Innovation, Celebration

Friday, 11 December 2015

2016 International Students For Liberty Conference (ISFLC 2016 - Washington DC)

The theme for the 2016 International Students For Liberty Conference is 'The Liberty Vote'.
The Liberty Vote isn’t simply about electing politicians to public office. The Liberty Vote is about the multitude of strategies for social change, whether that means voting for a candidate, voting for a party, voting with your pocketbook, or voting with your feet. There is not one liberty vote, but many different liberty votes, and SFL is dedicated to having them all represented at ISFLC.
Click here to register

The conference will be held on February 26-28, 2016 at the Marriott Wardman Park in Washington, DC to feel the pulse of the libertarian student movement that will be voting on young people's future.

Click here to register

Monday, 23 November 2015

National Center for Educational Development (NCED) Radio Program Online

Dear Colleagues,
Please follow this link to listen to our favorite online radio programs for Nepalese teachers:

Sunday, 12 July 2015

Teaching English as a Foreign Language

English, like all human languages, is full of difficulties for the foreign learner. Some problems are easy to explain and understand. Other problems are tricky and cause difficulty even for advanced students and teachers. Today, English is an official language in more than 60 countries—an only global language for communication.
Some of the existing varieties of English such as UK English, US English etc have posed a great threat to the universality of it. If someone makes too many mistakes in a foreign language, s/he can be difficult to understand, so a reasonable level of correctness is important. Nonetheless, it’s not essential to speak or write a language perfectly just to communicate effectively.
Owing to the practice of journalese and officialese, non-native speakers have difficulty in attaining a natural English style. As a matter of fact, there’s a high impact of India’s homely English on Nepal’s English standard. Nepal’s English heavily relies on the standard of Indian English, for most of the books published in India are imported and used widely at the school level. The books published or imported from English-speaking nations aren’t affordable. In the past, there’s a dearth of teachers, lecturers, professors, authors, resource persons with a good knowledge of English or expertise in using English efficiently.
English, in Nepal, is taught right from the pre-primary level to the university level. Moreover, English is a compulsory subject up to the first year of tertiary level. Since the growing importance of English has been realized, private schools and colleges teach all subjects in English except one—Nepali, the official language. Parents strongly believe that the knowledge of English helps their children blossom into a successful citizen endowed with all academics and worldly qualities required to keep the pace with the changing world. The government organizes workshops, training, conferences aiming at teachers of English to guide them through different aspects of learning, and introduce them to the varied methodologies of teaching in the current tech-savvy world. In addition, teachers of English can avail themselves of world-class scholarships funded by the American Embassy, British Council, Australian Embassy, etc.
I’ve already taught English at six schools. I’ve spared no effort to equip myself with necessary competencies, expertise and skills. I’ve also reaped a wealth of benefits as a teacher of English. My confidence has been built, all skills of English improved, work efficiency and my job prospects have been enhanced. The language and job itself have been a valuable aid to develop different perspectives of teaching, paving the way for up-to-date information. Above all, I’ve been to the UK due to British Council’s reciprocal visit grant.
On the other hand, I’ve got through several ordeals and repellent situations. In other words, I’ve to confront conflicting ideas, pig-headedness, bootlicking, arrogance etc of know-it-all colleagues. Some teachers are exasperated when their mistakes are rectified. They don’t consult authentic dictionaries. They endeavor to be jack of all trades but the master of none. The following are a few common mistakes made by the faculty of English: An employee receives a higher dearness allowance (a high cost of living allowance); someone expires (dies); five into five is twenty five (one); someone is an in-charge (in charge of); a student requests me to help(requests helps from me); someone talks (speaks) English; a participant stood (came/finished) first; a student passed in the exam (passed the exam) etc.

Grabbing at job opportunities without fluency in English has been almost impossible in Nepal as well. The one who speaks English is highly regarded in society. People in Nepal are highly influenced by English and western cultures. Nowadays, parents name their new-born babies after English names. Despite living below poverty line, some people manage to send their offspring to English medium schools. This tendency has resulted in the shutdown of state-owned Nepali medium schools. To my surprise, youths have started singing English songs even at their social, cultural and religious functions. Due to the knowledge of English, students subscribe to English papers, do online research, download e-books, watch English programs on TV, listen to English music, communicate in English on the phone, text pals in English, write letters in English etc. This hints at the improvement and disseminating high influence of English on Nepal’s new generation.

Amar Bahadur Sherma

English Teacher at Graded English Medium School (GEMS); founder member of Sustainable Education Group-Nepal (SEG-N) and full member of the Learning Teacher Network (LTN). It was published in The Learning Teacher magazine 2/15. 

A Conference on ‘Sustainable Education in Early Childhood: Nepalese Practice’

The Sustainable Education Group - Nepal (SEG-N), a non-profit-making organization, as usual organized a conference on ‘Sustainable Education in Early Childhood: Nepalese Practice’ on the occasion of Saraswoti Puja; worshipping of goddess of knowledge, dated 26 January 2015 though the occasion fell on 25 January, 2015.

Sarswati Puja, according to the Hindu mythology, is a good day to start learning. So, in Nepal most of the young children are enrolled to schools as it is considered a good opportunity to start the journey of learning. Many schools across Nepal offer free admission on this very day. There was a total of 20 participants representing Satpragya School (previously known Geneva Global School), Vidhya Sanskar School (previously known Chelsea International Academy) and Kinderworld School. The keynote speakers were Mr John Kesner, a professor at Georgia State University, the US and Mr Parbat Dhungana, a senior lecturer at Kathmandu University School of Education (KUSOED), Nepal. The conference took place at premises of Satpragya School, Lalitpur.

Monday, 29 June 2015

International GAP Seminar 2015: "Capacity Building for Educational Action in ESD"

The Learning Teacher Network will organise an International Seminar on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Edinburgh, Scotland UK on 5-7 November 2015. The title of the seminar is 'Capacity Building for Educational Action in ESD'. With input from internationally recognized experts and interactive discussions among the participants the seminar will learn more about capacity building and local action in relation to UNESCO’s new Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development (GAP/ESD).

Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) allows every human being to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary to shape a sustainable future. ESD means including key sustainable development issues into teaching and learning.
The UNESCO 2014 World Conference on ESD adopted the UNESCO Roadmap for implementing the Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development.
The GAP has two objectives:
* to reorient education and learning so that everyone has the opportunity to acquire the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that empower them to contribute to sustainable development – and make a difference;
* to strengthen education and learning in all agendas, programmes and activities that promote sustainable development.
The GAP focuses on five Priority Action areas:
1. Advancing policy;
2. Integrating sustainability practices into education and training environments (whole-institution approaches);
3. Increasing the capacity of educators and trainers;
4. Empowering and mobilizing youth;
5. Encouraging local communities and municipal authorities to develop community-based ESD programmes.
The Learning Teacher Network is officially recognized as committed partner to UNESCO with special focus on capacity building of educators and trainers (Priority Action Area 3).
The Edinburgh Seminar
With input from internationally recognized experts and interactive discussions among the participants the seminar will learn more about capacity building and local action for Education for Sustainable Development.
The network welcomes you to take part in this international seminar to learn, to share knowledge and experience, and to build new connections for international networking and cooperation.

Free on-line course: Personal ethic in ESD

Source: Newsletter from The Learning Teacher Network (27th June 2015)

The University of Edinburg in Scotland, UK is offering a free online course starting 22 June.
The five-week course is Education for Sustainability: Developing a personal ethic. The time commitment is 1 - 3 hours per week. We all have our own understandings of ‘sustainability’, of its significance as an environmental, social, economic and moral concept, and as a principle for individual, collective or corporate behaviour. This course begins from your start- ing point and explores how we might make positive differences to the future of our plan- et, and encourage others to do so.
Course Syllabus:
Week 1: Disruption: Reorienting our thoughts
Week 2: Thinking deeply: Local issues and per- sonal reflections
Week 3: Understanding broadly: Global is- sues and wider positioning
Week 4: Implement: How do we take action?
Week 5: Learning for sustainability: How can we inform and educate others?

The URL is course/sustainability

Friday, 29 May 2015

A Film Review on "Revolution"

Stand out of the fake symbiosis of producers and consumers full of greed; you are now part of our green revolution - for saving 'ourselves', for saving 'humankind', for saving 'life'.
I truly get more inspiration by Robert Brian Stewart himself as the director of the movie (documentary) and the little boy in the movie who visits the UN Climate Change Coalition's Conference in Mexico for the purpose of saving life from the catastrophic effects of climate change. The emotional scenes make us think twice and reflect on what we have been following in our daily lives - this should shake our lords (producers of the consumer goods that we consume) and wake them from a deep numbness of 'competition'. The movie is embedded at the bottom of the blog; and I strongly recommend you to take some seconds to read my blog-review on the movie before deciding to scroll down for it.

The characters in the movie - a biologist, a young activist, an indigenous activist, a teacher, students scientists and all have their stories to share and together one can make a theory explaining what has been happening to the oceans, marine biodiversity and ultimately the life on earth because of the corporates that rule the world,our governments, and ultimately us.

We blame on corporates for their competition on resources and profit-making. We blame on governments being unable to exercise that copes with sovereignty of people. We blame on this and that, but we failed to reflect critically on our actions .. this is the important missing line in the theory of climate change. So, the 'revolution' for reversing the climate change and other effects like ocean acidification, improving the support systems to ascertain life on earth we need to act to change ourselves and on parallel act together for making our earth a place to live. I intentionally omitted the word 'better' - because scientists also in this documentary are warning a threshold trigger that would permanently damage the life support system on earth.

A young film-maker from Canada who is already recognised by Toronto Film Festival, who is among us in the revolution to save life on earth, deserves gratitude from me whose team found me over internet and provided the movie for me to watch and share my thoughts on it. I will be getting a DVD from him shipped to me, I will be giving that DVD to a school in Nepal which has successful stories on producing greener generation of young graduates. Let me see which institution could be that.
I intentionally omitted the word 'better' - because scientists also in this documentary are warning a threshold trigger that would permanently damage the life support system on earth.

I am pretty sure that you might wish to see the movie if I add some key features of it: inspiring on-the-ground-story plot, life threatening risks, beautiful life under the ocean, science and indigenous knowledge, change that has already started, governments that bow down in front of corporates' interests, power of transformative education and many more. If you pay some amount to view it, one dollar goes to WWF - the worldwide fund for nature.

<< UPDATE: Yekra Player could be closing very soon according to them. So, please visit the website >>

Now, the embedded movie is just below. Let us transform our deeds for life on earth !
Yekra Player
Yekra is a revolutionary new distribution network for feature films.

Revolution is a feature documentary about opening your eyes, changing the world and fighting for something. A true life adventure following director Rob Stewart in the follow up to his hit Sharkwater, Revolution is an epic adventure into the evolution of life on earth and the revolution to save us.

Discovering that there’s more in jeopardy than sharks, Stewart uncovers a grave secret threatening our own survival as a species, and embarks on a life-threatening adventure through 4 years and 15 countries into the greatest battle ever waged.

Bringing you some of the most incredible wildlife spectacles ever recorded, audiences are brought face to face with sharks and cuddly lemurs, into the microscopic world of the pygmy seahorse, and on the hunt with the deadly flamboyant cuttlefish. From the coral reefs in Papua New Guinea to the rain forests in Madagascar, Stewart reveals that our fate is tied to even the smallest of creatures.

Through it all, Stewart’s journey reveals a massive opportunity, as activists and individuals all over the world are winning the battle to save the ecosystems we depend on for survival. Presenting the most important information on human survival and inspiring people all over the world to fight for life, Revolution is essential viewing for everyone. Startling, beautiful, and provocative, Revolution inspires audiences across the globe to join the biggest movement in history that’s rising to the challenge of saving our world.

Revolution premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival and has already gone on to win ten awards, including the Audience Award for Best Documentary at the Atlantic Film Festival, Most Popular Environmental Film Award at the Vancouver International Film Festival, the Audience Award at the Victoria Film Festival and the Social Justice Award at the Santa Barbara International Film Festival.

Wednesday, 13 May 2015

[E-Course] - Learning for Sustainability: Developing a personal ethic

Course by instructors from the University of Edinburgh
Please follow this link:

Saturday, 25 April 2015


Program Date:             3rd July – 12th July, 2015
Application Deadline:         May 15th, 2015
Scholarship Confirmation:     June 5th, 2015


Saturday, 14 March 2015

Website of Teacher Service Commission

We regularly get contacted by teachers and teacher-students with their queries about Teacher Service Commission. Notices regarding teaching license and other information are kept in their own website. The website of the commission is We request colleagues to see the mentioned website.

Saturday, 24 January 2015

What does sustainability mean to me?

" Mr Awasthi, if you are a teacher teach your students, if you are a messenger message your listener, if you are a researcher research on and make the clear understanding of your academia, if you are a farmer practice in your farm and teach to your father, if you are only an organism with understanding capacity please just conceptualize the interlinked meaning of Plant (Biruwa) and Element (Tatwo) then make the situation to return the element that you have used to the ‘all in all’ plant which is truly the state of sustainability"......... Dr. Madan Rai, 2014-11-15
As the guiding instructions by above personality, I am curious to the educational sustainability. I never forget the terms like "improve your personality from your locality" and there I see the global meaning in my local culture, local products, concepts and beliefs.It is really questionable that why do we forget our identity and meaning that coves multiple global concepts. I began my blogs to express my local and personal experiences to be discussed in and among the global thoughts that meets to educational sustainability.

Friday, 23 January 2015

Coordination, Innovation, Celebration: anything missing?

Not sure, 'what' to name this ! As I am not hereby putting any personal opinion forward. This seeks opinions from 'you' and I love to be one of the fellow around you; hence my opinion will also be threaded. This is not an article :P

Of course the context is, our network and team building. We had previously assigned three mantras as slogan of NTNSE - coordination, innovation, celebration. I ask, if anything adds to these.

How to do this? :::: Please comment below by using facebook account ! Be sure to check this page as the further comments won't show any 'notification' on your FB wall.

Thursday, 1 January 2015

Teachers’ Woes

“If you beat me, my mum will kill you.”

If you are a teacher, you may have already heard or are likely to hear an aforementioned remark. One of my colleagues once was astounded at the remark of a student in class.

I find myself in a sea of wonders and in a complete whirl. Are our students forgetting the real meaning of a school and a teacher? When I was back in a school, a school was understood to be a temple of learning and teaching and teachers to be a burning candle. Teachers were put at par with God. On the contrary, a school nowadays has been a dating spot for couples, a ring for quarrelsome pupils and a gossip venue for some teachers.

Infatuation has been one of the rising issues, and discipline a thing of the past and lack of it has only increased the woes of the teachers as well as the school administration.

One of the underlying problems for disciplinary problem is the defiant attitude the students have developed due to the backing of their parents. A parent coming to school to accuse and argue with the school staff is one of the commonest happenings that can be seen in any school office. Often these accusations and arguments take an ugly turn and the school authorities confront with parents’ threats of calling the media to tarnish institution’s image. So it is better to avoid confrontations being tolerant. Once upon a time, fear of corporal punishment was the only effective technique for discipline maintenance, but today the table has been turned. Now it is not students but teachers have to fear students.

At the cutting edge of science and technology, students cannot be deprived of its usage. No matter how often students are warned they turn their deaf ears to it. If students are penalized at the minimum level, parents hasten to create a row over it yet expect their ward/s to perform well in academics and extra-curricular activities. In addition, some students lay emphasis on love letters and pairing a boy off with a girl. They relate their life with a film’s story which doesn’t last more than three hours on a screen.

All sorts of pressure are placed on the teachers and the school authorities to promote the student, and if you do not succumb to this pressure, you are subject to dire consequences. Today the student is very well aware of the fact s/he will not be meted out any forms of physical punishment. Teachers are obligated to abide by rules, whereas parents forget their responsibilities for their wards’ overall development.

Today the classrooms hold only ten percent of scholars. The balance ninety percent are only present in class because they have to be there. They are only existing and contributing to the category for unwilling learners. Parents should have a clear conscience that their blind belief and backing to their offspring is only bringing the axe down on their own feet.

Amar Bahadur Sherma, a Secondary Level English Teacher at GEMS, published on 16 July, 2014, The Himalayan Times



At times when I feel lonely

Close my eyes and think of something lovely

I don’t know who I am missing

I wonder what I am wishing.

I ask myself why I cannot have fun

Someone says there are many things that I need to learn

Why I should not worry about tomorrow

My friends say there is no end to sorrow.

I try to keep myself truthful and bold

And stick to only what is right,

I don’t know any goals that make my future bright

Why I feel my dignity is gonna be sold.

Why I am not in touch with those friends, who care about me,

But I waste time just looking at a tree

I am a good person in my heart

Who would always shine?

The one who agrees that union and separation are our life’s part

Who would always shine?

The one who is always doing fine!

Choice of Right Words

1.    Occurred or happened

If you say that something ‘occurred’ you mean that it happened:

The accident occurred whilst passengers were waiting to board the plane.

But if you say that something ‘occurred to you’ you mean that an idea came into your mind:

Something suddenly occurred to me while I was waiting for the plane.

Be careful, therefore, no   t to use this expression if you mean that something happened which concerned you. Instead you can say:

Something suddenly happened to me whilst I was waiting for the plane.


2.   On Tuesday afternoon—in Tuesday afternoon

In general we use ‘in’ with the word ‘afternoon’.

In the afternoon we went to a stadium to see a match.

But when afternoon is specified, we have to use ‘on’ with afternoon or any other parts of a day.

I will phone you on Tuesday afternoon.

Collect all stationery on the morning of your exam.

3.   Outset—onset

The onset is a beginning/starting, especially of something unpleasant.

From the onset of a nasty cold, he has been ill.

Outset is a very beginning of an event.

I have been involved with the project from the outset.


4.   Party—person

One of the meanings of the word ‘party’ is a political organization whose members all have the same aims and beliefs, usually one that is trying to win elections to parliament. There is another meaning which might cause confusion to many. 

The guilty party has promised to pay Rs. 50, 000 in compensation. (This is the person who has confessed his or her crime.)

A certain person told me that Binaya voted for Subash Chandra Nembang.

5.   Pass an exam—pass in an exam

The word ‘pass’ is a transitive verb. It always takes a direct object to make complete sense. So the word ‘pass’ is not followed by a preposition. Many Nepalese translate Nepali sentences into English without any modification. Consequently, a common mistake is made.

Ma parikshyama pass bhaye. (‘ma’ a Nepali preposition)

Wrong          I passed in an exam. (Because the word pass does not take any prepositions.)

Right             I passed an exam.

6.   Passage—aisle

Many people are confused of these two words, who unknowingly misuse these words while speaking and writing. The word ‘aisle’ means a passage between rows of seats in a church, theatre, railway carriage, bus, aeroplane, etc. or between rows of shelves in a shop or supermarket:

The bride and groom walked slowly down the aisle (ie after their wedding ceremony).

‘Passage’ or ‘passageway’ is a long, narrow space that connects one place to another:

There is a passage to the side of the house, leading to the garden.

7.   People—peoples

The word ‘people’ itself indicates a plural noun or more than one person, however, we can use write peoples as a plural form of people.

Our school employs over 200 people. (more than one person)

Europe is made up of man different peoples. (all the people of a race)

8.   Plan—think

Do you first think or plan? When you plan, you think and decide what you are going to do or how you are going to do something in advance.

She is just planning her holidays.

When you think, you consider an idea or a problem.

You should think about where you want to live.

9.   Practicable—practical

The word ‘practicable’ means ‘that which appears to be capable of being put into practice; that which appears to be capable of being done.’ For example,

          Kalpana’s plan, I feel certain, is practicable.

The word ‘practical’ means that something is ‘known to be workable or effective.’ For example,

          All of the participants got some really practical advice.

The parliament believes that Amar’s plan, which has never been tried in any form, is practicable. (not practical because the plan has never been implemented)

Note: The word ‘practicable’ is never applied to persons. Only the word ‘practical’ when applied to persons, means ‘realistic’, calculating’, interested in actual conditions rather than in unknown or imaginary practices.’

10.            Read—study

When you study, you engage in the activity of learning, especially by serious reading.

Apekshya is in her bedroom, studying for the upcoming exam.

But when you read, you look at words that are written and say them aloud for other people to listen to.

I always read my children stories at bedtime.

Wrong          Which class do you read in? (because you learn about subjects at school)

Right             Which class do you study in?

11.            Refuse—deny

These two words mean ‘not to accept’ in general. Nevertheless, they have different clear-cut meanings.

When you refuse, you say that you will not do or accept something.

Messi refuses to admit that he was interested in leaving Barcelona.

When you deny, you say that something is not true, especially that you are accused of.

Sampada denied killing her friend at the party.  

12.            Remember—memorize

Remembering is not possible without memorizing. You memorize something well so that you can remember it exactly.

Akhil has memorized all his friends’ birthdays.

If you remember a fact or something from the past, you keep it in your mind, or bring it back into your mind.

I cannot remember the name of the film I saw last month with my wife.

13.            Rent—hire

In UK English you rent something for a long period of time.

Sikha has rent a 2-bedroom flat.

You hire something for a short period of time.

My family hired a car for the weekend.

In US English the word rent is used in both situations.


14.            Ride—drive

You ride a bike, cycle, horse. (small means of transport). When you ride these vehicles, you control them; you are no longer a passenger.

I always ride my bike to work.

She taught me to ride a horse.

You drive large means of transport like a bus, car or truck. (You control them.)

But you ride a bus to work. (as a passenger in US English.)

15.            For sale—on sale

For sale means ‘things offered to anyone anywhere who wants to buy them.

There are three houses for sale near us.

On sale means ‘things are in the shops for people to buy’.

The latest model of this video recorder is now on sale in your high street.

16.            Scene—view

A view is the whole area that you see from somewhere, for example when you look out of a window or down from a hill and see a beautiful place.

Simla had a great view from her window across the park.

A scene is what you see in a place, especially when you are describing a place where something unusual or shocking is happening:

Farsha described the horrific scenes which followed the bombing.

17.            Search for someone—search someone

Many of the students in Nepal use the latter one. If you search a place or person, you are looking for something in that place or on that person.

The police searched the man (looked in his clothes or frisked) for some illegal things at the airport.

If you search for something or someone, you are looking for that person or thing because you have something to do with them.

I am searching for Chiranjibi sir.  (I want to talk to him.)

Students call their teachers by title plus their surnames in the UK. For example,

Mrs Tamang, Mr Limbu, etc.

18.            Sensible—sensitive

Both the words are adjectives to describe how someone is. The adjective sensitive tells others how easily you feel or experience something.

Sambhu is a very sensitive man and gets upset easily.

Sensible is related to making decisions based on reasons rather than feelings and imagination.

It would be more sensible to leave before the traffic gets bad.

19.            Shade—shadow

Shade is the protection from the sun, a darker, cooler area behind something, example a building or a tree.

I am hot. Let’s find some shade to sit in.

A shadow is the ‘picture’ made by something that blocks out light. Moreover, a dark area on a surface caused by an object standing between direct light and that surface:

In the evening your shadow is longer than you are.

The shadows lengthen as the sun go down.

20.            Shift—move

‘Shift’ is one of the most frequently used words by the Nepalese. These two words have almost same meaning; therefore, Nepalese writers/speakers make a blunder. Compare their meanings:

If you shift something, you move that from one place to another. Moreover, we shift something that is movable and small enough to be transported.

We need to shift all these boxes into the other room.

If you move, either you change your position or go to a different place to live or work.

We moved into a new apartment at New Baneshwor. (to change the living place)

We moved the chairs to another room. (to change place or position)

Wrong          Our family have shifted to Biratnagar.

Right             Our family have moved to Biratnagar.

Choice of Correct Words

  1. Lastly—at last        

Do not confuse lastly and at last. Use ‘lastly’ when you are talking about several things in order and you want to show that you have reached the final thing on the list:

And lastly I would like to congratulate Dipesh for winning an award.

Use at last when you want to show that something has happened after a long time or after a lot of waiting:

She tried repeatedly until at last she succeeded.

When at last the rescuers found them, two people had already died.


  1. Last month—the last month

Last month is the month just before this one. If I am speaking in September, last month was August. ‘The’ makes a big difference.

I bought this house last month.

The last month is the period of thirty days up to the moment of speaking. On September 12th 2014, the last month is the period from August 13th to September 12th.

I have been ill for the last month. I feel terrible.

  1. Lawful—legitimate

Legal is the ordinary word for actions allowed by the law, and the general word for things connected with the law.

Lawful suggests that the law has moral or religious force:

Why don’t you value your lawful king?

Legitimate means ‘accepted by law, custom or common belief’:

He claimed that bombing the town was a legitimate act of war.

  1. Lead—guide

To lead is to show the way and explain things:

You lead and we will follow.

To guide is to go with someone somewhere who needs help, in order to show the way and explain things.

He guided the tourists round the castle.


  1. Lean—Slim

When describing people with very little fat on their bodies, thin is the most usual word. Many careful writers think slim is desirable. The word ‘slim’ is often used to describe women who have controlled their weight by diet or exercise:

Sonakshi has a beautifully slim figure.

She is slim.

Lean is usually used to describe a man who is thin and muscular.

At 50, my father is lean and fit and still very attractive.

  1. Like—as

If you play football or any games like a professional, you play as well as a professional.

He plays cricket like a professional.

If you play cricket as a professional, you are a professional.

He plays cricket as a professional.

  1. Loose—lose

The word ‘loose’ means ‘free, large, the opposite of tight.’ The word ‘lose’ means to not be able to find someone or something.

Wrong:         Anju doesn’t want to loose her purse.

Right:            Anju doesn’t want to lose her purse.

Right:            Subhash is wearing a loose sweater. Maybe, he borrowed the sweater from his friend who is fatter than him.

  1. Made of—made from

We usually say that something is made of a particular material.

Most things seem to be made of plastic these days.

All our furniture is made of wood.

When a material is changed into a completely different form to make something, we often use make from.

Paper is made from wood. When we talk about the process of manufacture, we can also use out of.

Tuleshwor made all the window-frames out of oak; it took a long time.

  1. Majority—plurality                                                  

          The term ‘majority’ means at least one more than half. The word ‘plurality’ means the highest number within a greater number. For example, if 100 members of a club vote in an election which has three candidates, one of them must receive at least 51 votes to have a majority. If none of the candidates receives 51 votes, none has a majority. In such a situation, the candidate receiving the highest number of votes is said to have a ‘plurality’. Thus, if A receives 46 votes, B receives 42, and C receives 12, A has received the plurality.

Wrong:         Prime Minister Dr Baburam Bhattarai was elected by the majority of the Nepalese voters. (This sentence is wrong because Dr Bhattarai did not receive at least 51 per cent of the popular vote.)

Right:            Prime Minister Dr Baburam Bhattarai was elected by a plurality vote.

  1. Meddle—interfere

When you meddle in a situation, you try to influence people or change things that are not your responsibility or you know little about.

Why do you always meddle in my private business?

When you interfere, you try to control or become involved in a situation, in a way that is annoying.

You should not interfere in other people’s business.


  1. Much money—a lot of money

Although we use the word ‘much’ with uncountable nouns like sugar, water, ghee, etc, we do not use say much money. But in interrogative sentences, much can collocate with money.

How much money do you have at the moment?

Wrong          I have much money.

Right             I have a lot of money. (Because it is a statement.)


  1. Murder—slay

When someone is murdered, they are murdered intentionally and illegally. 

They killed him. (He was simply stabbed or shot dead without torture.)

When someone is slain, they are killed in a very violent way. The word ‘slay’ is rare in modern English.

Many soldiers were slain in battle. (Soldiers were killed very cruelly.)

  1. Nail-cutter—nail clippers

A cutter is generally understood to be a tool for cutting something. So, many learners make compound words on their own, for example a nail-cutter. But this word does not exist in any English dictionaries.

The correct word for trimming the nails of the fingers is nail clippers or nail scissors.

Stop biting your nails. Buy nail clippers and trim it.

  1. Notorious—famous

Famous is like well-known but is a stronger word and means ‘known over a wide area’.

Ranjan is a well-known/famous athlete.

Notorious means famous for something bad. (Infamous is rather literary.)

Amrit was notorious for his evil deeds.


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