Classification of Living Beings is one of the important topics, included in chapter 2 of Class 10 Science based on the curriculum of the Nepal Government. This chapter is a really important chapter from an exam point of view too. We’ve already published Complete Notes for Scientific Study.

This chapter is all about the classifications of Living Beings. Classification of Living Beings Covers the following topics.

  • 2.0. Introduction
  • 2.1. Plantae Kingdom
  • 2.2. Kingdom Animalia

2.0 Introduction

We can find various types of living beings in the environment. These vary in size from microscopic to giant structures. They do have different structures of cells, body structures, and other different characteristics. Based on that, Robert Harding Whittaker classified living beings into 5 kingdoms. They are:

  1. Monera
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Plantae
  5. Animalia

Among these, five kingdoms, monera, fungi, and Protista are discussed in class 9. Here, we will discuss Plantae Kingdom and Animalia Kingdom.

2.1 Plantae Kingdom

In the Plantae kingdom, plants are classified into three major divisions. They are :

1. Algae

Activity 2.1 – Study of Algae

Objective: To identify characteristics of Algae
Required: Bottle, Dropper, Glass Slide, Microscope, Cover Slip
1. Collect Algae samples along with water from nearby ponds or moist places.
2. Now take a drop of water with Algae from the bottle with the help of a dropper and place it in the slide.
3. Cover the slide with a coverslip.
4. Observe the Algae with the help of a microscope.
5. Sketch the structure of the Algae after observation.
6. Discuss the Characteristics of Algae.
Activity 2.1 Study of Algae


Observe the following pictures and identify their characteristics.

We cannot distinguish the root, stem, and leaves of the plants shown above. The body of these plants is called a thallus. These plants contain cell walls and chlorophyll in their cell. They fall under the division Algae.

Characteristics of Algae:

Following are the characteristics of Algae

  1. These plants can be unicellular as well as multicellular.
  2. They contain chlorophyll and collect food as starch.
  3. The cell wall is made up of cellulose.
  4. They undergo sexual or asexual reproduction.
  5. These kinds of plants are usually found in moist areas, ponds, or rivers.

Examples: Volvox, Spirogyra, Fucus.

2. Bryophyta

Activity 2.2 – Observation of Moss
Objective: To identify characteristics of Bryophyta
Required: Moss, Needle, Chart Paper
1. Take a moss plant and observe different parts of the moss.
2. Note its characteristics based on observation.
3. Sketch a neat picture of moss on chart paper.
4. Find more characteristics from the internet.
5. Present the characteristics of Bryophyta based on observation and findings from the internet.
6. Discuss and prepare a list of characteristics of Bryophyta
Activity 2.2-Observation of Moss


Observe the following pictures and identify their characteristics.

Bryophyta is well developed than algae. Marchantia has a thallus body, whereas moss has a less developed stem and leaves. They are green plants. They are amphibian plants, as water is needed for reproduction. They are also found in moist places.

Characteristics of Bryophyta

The following are the characteristics of Bryophyta:

  1. Bryophyta are multicellular plants.
  2. Bryophyta are autotrophs.
  3. Bodies of some Bryophyta are thallus, some are rhizoid and some are simple leaves.
  4. Bryophyta is found in moist and cold places.
  5. These plants do not have vascular tissue. So, they cannot grow tall and are only a few cm tall.
  6. Male and Female plants are different during the gametophyte condition. Male plants produce male gamete on antheridium and female plants produce female gamete on archegonium. The female gamete is also known as the ovum. Male gamet using water reaches to female gamet and mates to form a zygote which later forms into a sporophyte condition.
  7. The cycle of gametophytic and sporophytic processes in the life cycle of moss is also known as the alternation of generation. In the life cycle, gametophytic generation is long, dominant, and independent.

Examples – Marchantia, Moss, Riccia

3. Tracheophyta

Those plants which have distinct, root, stem and leaves fall under this classification. Different types of trees, from small to large trees fall into this division. They include both flowering and nonflowering plants. There are three subdivisions under Tracheophyta. They are:

  • Pteridophyta
  • Gymnosperm
  • Angiosperm


Activity 2.3 – Observation of Ferns
Objective: To identify characteristics of Ferns.
Required: Fern Plant, Chart Paper, Gum, etc.
1. Bring a fern plant along with its root.
2. Carefully observe its root, stem, and leaves.
3. Note its characteristics based on observation.
4. Sketch a neat picture of Fern on the chart paper.
5. Discuss and prepare a list of characteristics of Ferns.
Activity2.3 – Study of Fern


Observe the following pictures and identify their characteristics

Ferns are found in moist and shady places. They bear spores, which fall on the ground to form gametes and reproduce. They have feather-like leaves.

Characteristics of Ferns

The following are the characteristics of Ferns:

  1. These plants are found in moist and shadowed places.
  2. They do not have seeds but they have distinct root, stem, and leaves.
  3. They have feather-like leaves, less-developed stems, and well-developed roots.
  4. They have developed vascular tissues such as the xylem and phloem.
  5. These plants contain many sori behind their leaves. They produce spores. Some of the plants do not produce spores. Those who produce spores are sporophytes and those who don’t produce spores are called tropophiles. These are also called sporophytes.
  6. Spores, when they fall on the ground germinate to form a gametophyte named prothallus. Gametophytes produce both male and female gamete for sexual reproduction.
  7. Alteration of generation occurs in the lifecycle of these plants, where the sporophytic process is long and dominant.

Examples – Fern, Ground Gooseberry, Tetris, etc.


Trees like Pine, fir, and cycas have cones instead of flowers and do not bear fruit but they have naked seeds. These trees are classified into sub-division gymnosperms.

Characteristics of Gymnosperms

  1. Gymnosperms are the first plants that produced seeds.
  2. These plants have cones instead of flowers. These are unisexual and the male cone differs from the female cone. Pollination occurs by the medium of air.
  3. The cones do not contain ovaries. Hence they do not bear fruits and have naked seeds.
  4. They have narrow, long, and needle-like leaves.
  5. The Stem of these plants is covered by thick barks.
  6. These are called coniferous plants as most of the plants are cone-shaped.
  7. The roots are spread in wide areas.

Examples – Pine, Fir, Cycas, Himalayan Cedar, etc.


Angiosperm are those plants that bear flowers as well as fruits and the seeds are covered inside the fruit.

Characteristics of Angiosperms:

  1. These are the most developed plants of Kingdom Plantae.
  2. These are aquatic as well as terrestrial.
  3. They have well-developed roots, stems, leaves fruits, and seeds.
  4. They bear real flowers and the flowers contain ovules and ovaries.
  5. Some of the Angiosperm are unisexual whereas some are bisexual.
  6. Pollination occurs by the medium of air, water, or insects.
  7. Seeds of angiosperms are covered by the fruits.

Examples – Orange Tree, Banana Tree, Paddy Tree, Pistia, etc.

Angiosperms are further divided into two classes based on cotyledons inside their seeds.

They are:

A. Monocotyledons
Activity 2.3 – Observation of Maize Plant
Objectives – To identify characteristics of monocotyledons plants
Required – Maize Plant, Chart Paper, Gum
1. Take a Maize Tree with its root.
2. Observe its root, stem, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
3. Note the characteristics of veins in leaves, types of roots, parts of a flower, and seeds based on observation.
4. Sketch a neat picture of the Maize Plant on the chart paper.
5. Discuss the characteristics of monocotyledon plants based on observations made.
Activity 2.4 – Observation of Maize Plants


Observe the following pictures and identify characteristics of monocotyledons plants

Characteristics of Monocotyledons Plants

  1. The leaves of monocotyledon plants contain parallel venation.
  2. Stems are usually hollow with nodes in between them. Branches and Leaves are developed from the nodes.
  3. Vascular Bundles are presented in the stem, which is made up of xylem and phloem tissues.
  4. Parts of flowers are either three or multiple of three.
  5. The seeds are enclosed by the fruits and contain only one cotyledon.
  6. They are aquatic as well as terrestrial.

Examples – Maize Plant, Sugarcane Plant, wheat Plant, etc.

B. Dicotyledons

Activity 2.5 – Observation of Gram Plant
Objective – To identify characteristics of dicotyledon plants
Required – Gram Plant, Gram Seeds, Chart paper, Gum
1. Soak some gram seeds in a bowl.
2. After a few minutes, take that seed and observe the number of cotyledons and note it down in your copy.
3. Take a gram plant with roots.
4. Observe its roots, stems, leaves, fruits, and seeds.
5. Note the venation of leaves, number of cotyledons in seeds, types of roots, and characteristics of flowers based on observation.
6. Sketch a neat picture of a gram plant on chart paper.
7. Discuss the characteristics of dicotyledon plants based on study and observations made.
Activity 2.5 – Observation of Gram Plant


Observe the following pictures and identity characteristics of dicotyledons plants

Characteristics of Dicotyledons Plants

  1. These types of plants vary from small shrubs to large trees.
  2. The roots are of the tap root system.
  3. Stems are thick and solid. Nodes are not presented uniformly.
  4. The vascular Bundle lies inside stems in the form of rings.
  5. They have simple or compound type of leaves with petioles. They have reticulate Venation.
  6. Parts of flowers are either four to five or multiple. Flowers are either unisexual or bisexual.
  7. They undergo self-pollination as well as cross-pollination.
  8. Seeds are enclosed by the fruits and contain two cotyledons.

Examples – Gram plant, Pumpkin Plant, Peas Plant, etc.

Activity 2.6 – Classification of Plants
Objectives– To classify plants found nearby
Required– Various Plants
1. Collect small plants from nearby along with their roots.
2. Collect leaves of large trees.
3. Divide yourself into groups and study the characteristics of the plants you collected. Discuss and Classify the plants into different groups based on characteristics based on observation.
4. Prepare the classification chart for the Plantae kingdom on chart paper and classify the plants.
5. Paste the classification on your classroom wall.
Activity 2.6 – Classification of Plants


This was all about the classification of the Plantae kingdom. Hope this will help you. After completion of this, you’ll be able to:

  • Classify plants into different groups and divisions
  • Differentiate between Alage, Bryophyta, and Tracheophyta.
  • Differentiate between Pteridophyta, Angiosperms, and Gymnosperms
  • Differentiate between monocotyledons and dicotyledons.

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