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Saturday, 28 April 2012

Powerpoint for Rio+20

We tried to make school children aware about Rio+20 by a powerpoint .. Please use it ::

Thursday, 26 April 2012

Serious about World Ecosystem ? : Go4BioDiv 2012, India

It is estimated that marine plants produce about 70 to 80 percent of oxygen gas and release to the atmosphere. The kids at school were amazed to hear this, when I was lecturing on 'marine pollution'.

Picture Source : Washington State Parks 
I have been fascinated by the world's effort on putting vocational and applied science degrees on marine ecosystem, environmental ethics, environmental law. Though my motherland Nepal is a land-locked country, I have keen interest on marine world as it is our common , at least for existence of life in this planet earth. 

We should not forget the scientific evidences which lead us to accept that life started due to marine environment and development of life forms accelerated in the planet earth because of the marine biodiversity.

The marine pollution, oil spills, oil leakages, dumping, overfishing, whaling, global warming, recreational overuse and many among others are threats to the marine ecosystem and to of course the marine biodiversity.

I hereby call global colleagues to meet and seriously involve yourself in an International Youth Forum titled Go4BioDiv 2012 (and of course beyond) which is going to be held in the Sundarbans, India from October 6-15, 2012. The theme of Go4BioDiv 2012 will be ‘Conserving coastal and marine biodiversity for sustaining life and livelihoods’. Then the participants will join CoP-11 of the CBD, the UN system of Biodiversity Convention going to be held in Hyderabad, India in the same month.

Please follow these links for more details:

Act now, otherwise when ?

Monday, 2 April 2012

Local People Perception on Climate Change; Its Impacts and adaptation measures, A Case of Dhading District Central Nepal

Thesis Abstract by Subash Duwadi

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has defined climate changes as a change of climate that is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and that is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.

This research was carried out in Mahadevstan, Benighat, Dhusa and Gajuri VDCs of Dhading district. The study examines how farmer’s perceptions regarding Climate Change correspond withtemperature and rainfall data at the nearby meteorological station of the Mahadevstan and bydocuments local adaptation responses to the impacts of climate change, and its variability.Total 225 respondents were randomly interviewed by making transect walk ranging from about 1000 mto 2300 m from mean sea level.

There was 0.0972% per annum increases in temperature of Dhading district in January while there has been 0.051% per annum increases in temperature in the months of July between 1978-2008. The average rainfall in the month of January between 1978-2008 is 8.71mm while this hasbeen 421mm in the month of July. The growth in the average temperature of Mahadevstanbetween the periods 1978-2008 has been 0.02390C per annum. The growth in the maximum temperature is around 0.120C.

The correlation analysis between maize yield and total annual average rainfall is found to be negative (-0.22) while that of correlation analysis between maize yield and the total annualaverage temperature is found to be positive (0.2136).The correlation analysis between the paddy yield and total annual average temperature and total annual average rainfall was positive with 0.244 and 0.229 respectively.

The statistical analysis of the temperature data from 1978-2008 in Dhading district showed alinear trend of increasing with the increase mostly in the monsoon period. Over 30 years examined, rainfall is characterized by the large inter annual variability with a substantialdecrease in the amount of rainfall over the final four years of the data. However, there isnoticeable long running trend of the increasing rainfall. The responses reported by the localpeople on the climate variability is in the line with the climatic data records. The analysis showsthat 90% respondents perceive the temperature has increased and 97% said that are experiencing unpredictable rainfall patterns since last 10 years.

There is a mixed perception (agree to don’t know) in the statements like the rainfall is decreasing every year during rainy season, the rainfall is decreasing every year during winter season, theweather is becoming dry every year, the yearly rains are not supporting crop production asbefore, climate change has lead to crop infestation and diseases, and there is now scarcity of the fuel wood.

Impacts were observed contributing to loss of the species and the local landraces, declining productivity and the yield, late monsoon, increased drought period, hail storm abnormally, wind flow pattern getting warmer, decreasing water sources, changes in flowering and fruiting time,reduction of some indigenous plant like Artemisia indica, outbreak of the diseases and the pests,rapid encroachment by the invasion like Ageratina adenophora and Ageratum species, and the emergence of the human diseases
Farmers have adopted different measures to cope with the effect. Some have cultivated different crop while others have adopted varities/ crops to shorten the growing season and also practiced the rainwater harvesting techniques. Some farmers have used the organic manure to their crops.

The mulching has been practiced extensively in some VDCs. Optimum utilization of the marginal lands by planting fodder trees, fruit trees and the other grasses, forest protection by handed over the forest to the community groups are the other adaptation measures applied by the
Key words: Climate change, Impacts, Adaptation, Temperature, Rainfall, Farmers Perception

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